who led the struggle to replace the apartheid regime of South Africa with a
country’s first black president four years later and to play a leading role in
the drive for peace in other spheres of conflict.
bitterness over his harsh treatment, as well as his amazing life story, partly
explain his extraordinary global appeal.
become South Africa’s highest
recent years – was also involved in peace negotiations in the Democratic
Republic of Congo, Burundi and other countries in Africa and elsewhere.
life to spend more time with his family and friends and engage in “quiet
thinking of inviting him to future engagements.
largely retiring from public life.
had held with members of the US and South African football teams.
hospital for “specialised tests” with the South African presidency
reminding a concerned nation that Mr Mandela has had “previous respiratory
president contracted tuberculosis.
said was “a long-standing abdominal complaint”.
a small village in the eastern Cape of South Africa. In South Africa, he is
often called by his clan name – “Madiba”.
Nelson, by a teacher at his school.
when Nelson Mandela was nine, and he was placed in the care of the acting
regent of the Thembu people, chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo.
went to Johannesburg.
white Witswaterand University, where he met people from all races and
backgrounds. He was exposed to liberal, radical and Africanist thought, as well
as racism and discrimination, which fuelled his passion for politics.
and later co-founded the ANC Youth League.
He married his first wife, Evelyn Mase, in 1944. They were
divorced in 1958 after having four children.
Mr Mandela qualified as a lawyer and in 1952 opened a law
practice in Johannesburg with his partner, Oliver Tambo.
apartheid, the system devised by the all-white National Party which oppressed
the black majority.
155 other activists, but the charges against him were dropped after a four-year
Laws, which dictated where black people were allowed to live and work.
to take an active role in the campaign to free her husband from prison.
heights in 1960 when 69 black people were shot dead by police in the
already national vice-president of the ANC, launched a campaign of economic
attempting to violently overthrow the government.
used the stand to convey his beliefs about democracy, freedom and equality.
society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal
opportunities,” he said.
achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
Mandela’s mother died and his eldest son was killed in a car crash but he was
not allowed to attend the funerals.
being transferred to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland in 1982.
lived in exile, the youths of South Africa’s black townships did their best to
fight white minority rule.
schoolchildren’s uprising was crushed.
international campaign against apartheid but ingeniously decided to focus it on
one cause and one person – the demand to release Mr Mandela.
London when some 72,000 people – and millions more watching on TV around the
world – sang “Free Nelson Mandela”.
first imposed on South Africa in 1967 against the apartheid regime.
Klerk lifted the ban on the ANC. Mr Mandela was released from prison and talks
on forming a new multi-racial democracy for South Africa began.
grounds of her adultery. She had also been convicted on charges of kidnapping
and accessory to assault.
the Nobel Peace Prize.
history, all races voted in democratic elections and Mr Mandela was
overwhelmingly elected president.
shortage for the poor, and slum townships continued to blight major cities.
business of the government, while he concentrated on the ceremonial duties of a
leader, building a new international image of South Africa.
multinational corporations to remain and invest in South Africa.
the widow of the former president of Mozambique.
attending conferences and collecting awards after stepping down as president.
mostly connected with the work of the Mandela Foundation, a charitable fund
that he founded.
leading world figures, to offer their expertise and guidance “to tackle
some of the world’s toughest problems”.
came early in 2005, following the death of his surviving son, Makgatho.
Mandela announced that his son had died of Aids, and urged South Africans to
talk about Aids ” to make it appear like a normal illness”.
Africa host the 2010 football World Cup and appeared at the closing ceremony.
into circulation in November 2012.
Mandela’s key dates
- 1918 – Born in the Eastern Cape
- 1944 – Joined African National Congress
- 1956 – Charged with high treason, but charges dropped
- 1962 – Arrested, convicted of sabotage, sentenced to five years in prison
- 1964 – Charged again, sentenced to life
- 1990 – Freed from prison
- 1993 – Wins Nobel Peace Prize
- 1994 – Elected first black president
- 1999 – Steps down as leader
- 2001 – Diagnosed with prostate cancer
- 2004 – Retires from public life
- 2005 – Announces his son has died of an HIV/Aids-related illness
- 2007 – Forms The Elders group
- 2010 – Appears at closing ceremony of World Cup